Clinical, pathological and epidemiological details of scrapie-like encephalopathies are described in an arabian oryx and a greater kudu. Clinical signs included ataxia and loss of condition with a short, progressive clinical course (22 and three days, respectively). Histopathological examination of the brains revealed spongiform encephalopathy characteristic of that observed in scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). It seems probable that these cases have a common aetiology with BSE. Scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathies have now been described in five species of exotic artiodactyls in Britain indicating a, hitherto inapparent, wider range of ruminant species as natural hosts for these diseases.