Renal disorders in lambs may be congenital, infectious, toxic, immunologically mediated or secondary to urethral obstruction. Congenital abnormalities are uncommon. Kidney infections often are only one aspect of more widespread diseases, for example, tick pyaemia or salmonellosis. Toxic diseases, which affect mainly the renal tubules, may be caused by bacterial, chemical or plant toxins, although in lamb nephrosis the cause is unknown. Immunecomplex glomerulonephritis is uncommon, and one form, mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis of Finnish landrace lambs, is under genetic control. Urolithiasis may have secondary effects on the kidneys.
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