The clinical features of a newly recognised inherited disease, primary hyperoxaluria in the cat, are reported. Affected cats developed acute renal failure between five and nine months old owing to the deposition of oxalate crystals in the tubules of the kidney. In addition to the signs attributable to kidney failure the affected animals became profoundly weak; there was evidence of denervation atrophy in skeletal muscle, and accumulations of neurofilaments were found in the proximal axons of the ventral horn cells and dorsal root ganglion cells of the spinal cord. Examination of urine from affected cats revealed L-glyceric aciduria and intermittent hyperoxaluria suggesting that the disease is a feline analogue of the human disorder, primary hyperoxaluria type 2. This supposition was confirmed by liver enzyme studies.
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