Article Text

Plasma vitamins A and E, total lipid and cholesterol concentrations in captive jackass penguins (Spheniscus demersus)
  1. FM Gulland,
  2. K Ghebremeskel,
  3. G Williams and
  4. PJ Olney
  1. Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park.


The concentrations of vitamins A and E in the plasma of captive jackass penguins was studied in birds fed defined quantities of the vitamins. For a year, each of the 17 adult birds in the colony received a daily diet of 340 g of sprats and a vitamin supplement tablet, together providing 2.04 mg per day retinol equivalent and 185 mg per day alpha-tocopherol equivalent. The concentrations of plasma retinol and alpha-tocopherol and the alpha-tocopherol/total lipid ratio compared well with those recorded in wild populations of related species of penguin and the birds moulted and bred successfully.

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