The concentrations of vitamins A and E in the plasma of captive jackass penguins was studied in birds fed defined quantities of the vitamins. For a year, each of the 17 adult birds in the colony received a daily diet of 340 g of sprats and a vitamin supplement tablet, together providing 2.04 mg per day retinol equivalent and 185 mg per day alpha-tocopherol equivalent. The concentrations of plasma retinol and alpha-tocopherol and the alpha-tocopherol/total lipid ratio compared well with those recorded in wild populations of related species of penguin and the birds moulted and bred successfully.
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