The likelihood of airborne spread and infection by Salmonella typhimurium was studied in calves and mice. S typhimurium survived in air sufficiently long to present a significant hazard of airborne spread. In a dry climate (32 per cent relative humidity) its predicted viability five minutes after aerosolization was 4 per cent relative to its initial value. This increased to 24.8 per cent in a humid atmosphere (72 per cent relative humidity). Inhalation of S typhimurium by mice caused disease and death at times dependent upon the dose. Even the lowest dose of about 150 colony forming units (cfu) produced disease. Inoculation of approximately 10(4) to 10(6) cfu S typhimurium by either 'mouth and nose only' or 'whole body' aerosol exposure caused infection in calves. The consequences for the control of salmonellosis in intensive calf husbandry are discussed in the light of this demonstration that airborne transmission can be a primary mode of infection of S typhimurium.