The results of a study of the economic losses caused by paratuberculosis in dairy cattle are reported. The losses in production and the determination of lost future income due to premature disposal are emphasised. A decrease in milk production of 19.5 per cent compared with the lactation two years before culling was recorded in animals showing clinical signs of paratuberculosis. The decrease in production in the last lactation but one compared with the previous lactation was 5 per cent. In animals with non-clinical forms of paratuberculosis these decreases in production were 16 per cent and 6 per cent, respectively.