In the light of the recent outbreaks of rinderpest in Africa a further assessment of the efficacy of the simultaneous inoculation of rinderpest virus vaccine and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccine was undertaken. Groups of cattle were inoculated with a dual preparation of rinderpest vaccine virus and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides or M mycoides alone. These groups were then challenged with M mycoides, first unsuccessfully by an in-contact challenge method and then by subcutaneous challenge. All animals were examined clinically after challenge for evidence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and serologically for rinderpest virus and M mycoides mycoides antibodies. There was no evidence that the serological response to the dual vaccine was in any way less than that to either agent given alone and no clinical disease was detected in these animals after in-contact challenge. However, after subcutaneous challenge, the dual vaccinated groups reacted similarly to an unvaccinated control group and unlike the group vaccinated only with M mycoides. This would indicate that the rinderpest virus component of the dual vaccine interfered with the ability of the M mycoides component to induce a fully effective immune response. In the pan African rinderpest campaign the use of the dual vaccine in areas where contagious bovine pleuropneumonia occurs should be carefully considered; in areas where the disease does not occur it is contraindicated.
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