Cows with chronic endometritis were treated by using uterine irrigation, prostaglandin or oestradiol benzoate. An attempt was made to relate the success of treatment to the nature of the discharge. No statistically significant differences were demonstrated between the different treatments, nor did the severity of the disease as judged by the amount of pus in the discharge affect the success of treatment. Progesterone and in some cases a metabolite of prostaglandin were measured in a milk sample taken at the time of treatment. Increased prostaglandin concentrations were found in 69 of 71 samples examined but they were not correlated with the progesterone concentrations. These measurements from cases of endometritis were higher than those from normal cows in the immediate post partum period and during established oestrous cycles. Treatment with prostaglandin when the concentration of progesterone was high was not more effective than when progesterone concentrations were low. Treatment had less influence on the subsequent fertility of the cow than other factors investigated; in particular, the sooner after calving the cow was treated the greater was the chance of success. This was thought to be due, at least in part, to the high rate of spontaneous recovery. Before treatment can be evaluated effectively a method must be found to identify persistent cases.