Pasteurella multocida serotype B:3,4 isolated from a fallow deer in England was used as a vaccine to prevent haemorrhagic septicaemia. The deer strain was less virulent for calves than typical serotype B:2 of haemorrhagic septicaemia strains. It elicited antibodies in cattle that protected mice against serotype B:2 infection. The live deer vaccine containing 2 X 10(7) viable organisms per dose was used to immunise calves. Six months after vaccination, five of six calves were protected against serotype B:2 challenge. Two calves challenged nine months after vaccination survived the same challenge. The live vaccine was more efficacious than an alum precipitated vaccine in protecting calves against B:2 challenge.