The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was applied to the detection of lungworm infections in calves. In experimentally infected animals different responses to larval and adult worm antigens were observed. The response to adult worm antigens was delayed in vaccinated animals when infection occurred by the gradual uptake of infective larvae from contaminated pasture. A serological survey in The Netherlands demonstrated a high incidence of lungworm infection in both vaccinated and unvaccinated herds. There was a good correlation between anti-adult worm and anti-larval ELISA-titres. ELISA appeared to be a useful technique for assessing the level of lungworm infection in a herd.