Primary hyperlipoproteinaemia (hyperchylomicronaemia) with a slight increase in very low density lipoprotein) is described in 20 cats. Fasting hyperlipaemia, lipaemia retinalis and peripheral neuropathies were the most frequently detected clinical signs. The disease is thought to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait but the exact mode of inheritance has not been determined. Affected cats showed reduced lipoprotein lipase activity measured after heparin activation compared with the response in normal cats. Plasma triglyceride and cholesterol were increased in all the cats with the major proportion of triglyceride and cholesterol being present in chylomicrons. The peripheral nerve lesions were caused by compression of nerves by lipid granulomata. It is probable that the lipid granulomata result from trauma because the nerves most often affected were at sites like the spinal foraminae where they were susceptible to trauma.
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