Isometamidium chloride prophylaxis against Trypanosoma congolense challenge and the development of immune responses in Boran cattle
Twenty-four Boran cattle were injected with isometamidium chloride (1 mg/kg bodyweight) to investigate the duration of drug-induced prophylaxis against infection by metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma congolense and to determine if specific antibody responses to the organism were mounted by animals under chemoprophylactic cover. Complete protection against either single challenge by five tsetse flies infected with T congolense, or repeated challenge at monthly intervals by five tsetse flies, lasted for five months. Six months after treatment, two-thirds of the cattle were resistant to challenge, irrespective of whether subjected to single or multiple challenge with trypanosome-infected tsetse flies, or titrated doses of in vitro-cultured metacyclic forms of T congolense (5 X 10(2) to 5 X 10(5) organisms), inoculated intradermally. No animal which resisted infection developed detectable skin reactions at the site of deposition of metacyclic trypanosomes or produced trypanosome-specific antibodies. It was concluded that drug residues effectively limited trypanosome multiplication at the site of deposition in the skin, thus preventing subsequent parasitaemia or priming of the host's immune response.
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