Parvaquone was used to treat 126 cattle with theileriosis. Theileria species schizonts were present in their lymph node biopsy smears and the majority of the animals had clinical signs of theileriosis. One hundred and fifteen treated and one untreated cattle survived the infection while 11 treated and 12 untreated animals died of the disease. Despite serological evidence of a parasite challenge during the subsequent rainy season, recovered cattle did not develop clinical signs of theileriosis but untreated cattle in the area continued to die from the disease. An intermittent low piroplasm parasitaemia (less than 1 per cent) was observed in recovered cattle for up to 14 months after detailed monitoring of cattle in the trial; this could be evidence for a carrier status for the Theileria species or strains involved.
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