Twelve Hereford cross Friesian cows received subcutaneous implants containing 6 mg norgestomet and intramuscular injections of 5 mg oestradiol valerate and 3 mg norgestomet. Six of the cows also received 0.5 mg cloprostenol eight days later and all implants were removed on day 9. When treatment was commenced between days 3 and 5 of the ovarian cycle, luteal function was not prevented although the luteal phase was shortened in some cases. When treatment was commenced between days 8 and 14 of the cycle progesterone concentrations remained above basal levels for five to seven days. Cows with corpora lutea that were given cloprostenol underwent rapid luteolysis. It is concluded that oestradiol valerate does not control luteal function adequately, particularly if administered early in the cycle, and this may explain failure of oestrus synchronisation in some cases. Administration of prostaglandin 24 hours before norgestomet implant removal may improve the degree of oestrus synchronisation in groups of cyclic cows.