The use of cystoscopy is advocated as an aid to the early differential diagnosis of disease of the canine bladder. Techniques are described for carrying out urethroscopy and cystoscopy in both male and female dogs using modern medical diagnostic instruments. Males were examined with flexible paediatric bronchofibrescopes, which permitted urethroscopy and cystoscopy, but to obtain extensive biopsies or undertake cauterisation of the bladder surface with rigid endoscopes, a simple perineal urethrostomy was necessary. The bladder of females, on the other hand, was examined by cystoscopy and biopsied using standard rigid cystoscopes and resectoscopes.
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