Commercial dairy cows were given a routine injection of dinoprost tromethamine (prostaglandin F2 alpha THAM) in the early post partum period. The first service conception rate of 64 cows given a single 25 mg injection of dinoprost during the period 14 to 28 days after calving was 68 per cent, that of 64 untreated controls was 43 per cent. The difference was highly significant at the level P = 0.007. In cows with no blood progesterone and with basal progesterone concentrations at the time of treatment, indicating absence of an active corpus luteum, the mean conception rates for 30 treated and 38 control cows were 70 and 44 per cent, respectively, demonstrating that this is not a luteolytic effect. Although that implies a positive myometrial effect, the interval from calving to first service was not shortened in treated cows.
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