Nine puppies without maternal antibody to canine adenovirus (CAV) were divided into two groups. The first consisted of six puppies, each of which was given two doses of a commercial inactivated CAV-1 vaccine, 14 days apart. Eight days after administration of the second dose of vaccine, all six puppies, together with the second group, consisting of three unvaccinated controls, were challenged with an aerosol of virulent CAV-2. One dog from each group was killed on the third, fifth and 10th days after challenge and the three additional vaccinates killed at intervening times. All of the dogs developed respiratory signs, mainly coughing and tachypnoea, but the vaccinated dogs made a more rapid recovery. The lungs of both groups were consolidated, the areas affected being more extensive in the controls, and histological examination revealed the main lesion to be a severe necrotising bronchiolitis. Virus was isolated from the respiratory tissues and from throat swabs collected from both groups of dogs. The presence of neutralising antibody in the serum was not, of itself, sufficient to control viral replication and oblate the disease.
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