Primary hyperlipoproteinaemia (hyperchylomicronaemia with slight very low density lipoprotein elevation) is described in two related male cats. Fasting hyperlipaemia, lipaemia retinalis and subcutaneous xanthomas were detected on clinical examination. In one cat lipoprotein lipase activity measured after heparin activation was significantly reduced compared to the response in a normal cat. The lipid and protein concentration in each of the lipoprotein classes and the lipoprotein distribution of the two hyperlipaemic cats, two normolipaemic relations and 16 normolipaemic adult cats were determined. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were elevated in the hyperlipaemic cats with the major proportion of triglyceride and cholesterol being present in chylomicrons whereas in normolipaemic cats the majority of triglyceride was contained in very low density lipoprotein. High density lipoprotein was the predominant lipid carrier in both the normolipaemic and the hyperlipaemic cats but the protein content in chylomicrons was elevated in the two affected cats. The lipoprotein distribution in normal cats in this study agrees with previously reported values. The hyperlipaemic cats showed many of the features of familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency (type I hyperlipoproteinaemia, exogenous chylomicronaemia) which is an inherited disease in man.
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