Thirty-nine species of bacteria were isolated from or demonstrated in the abomasal and small and large intestinal mucosa of 23 adult cattle and 41 calves and identified. The bacteria isolated were related to the gross and microscopical lesions. Campylobacters, Clostridium perfringens type A, C sordellii, Actinobacillus lignieresii, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli were all associated with specific lesions. The relationship of other bacteria such as Bacillus licheniformis, Branhamella catarrhalis and Bacteroides vulgatus to lesions in which they were found was discussed. It was concluded that some of the bacteria could be responsible for the lesions in which they were found. However, proof of this supposition could only be obtained by experimental infections of non-immune cattle with pure cultures.