A study was carried out on the bacteriological faecal flora of horses before and after oral doses of oxytetracycline or trimethoprim plus sulphadiazine. Administration of oxytetracycline was rapidly followed by large increases in counts of coliforms. Bacteroides and Streptococcus species, the disappearance of Veillonella species, the appearance of Clostridium perfringens type A in large numbers and the accumulation of watery fluid in the rectal contents. These changes were not seen following administration of trimethoprim-sulphadiazine and it was concluded that oral treatment of horses with this combination was unlikely to be accompanied by the hazard of inducing colitis.
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