Bivalent Newcastle disease (ND)/infectious bursal disease (IBD) and trivalent ND/IBD/infectious bronchitis (IB) inactivated oil emulsion vaccines were prepared in the laboratory and evaluated under field conditions. Broiler breeder parent chickens previously vaccinated with live vaccines were inoculated with commercial monovalent ND and experimental bivalent or trivalent oil emulsion vaccines. The commercial vaccine induced a higher initial ND haemagglutination inhibition (HI) response than the experimental vaccines but, by 34 weeks after vaccination, the mean ND HI levels were not significantly different in any of the three flocks. All three vaccines provided sufficient ND immunity to protect against the clinical disease and egg production losses. The IBD responses of both flocks vaccinated with oil emulsion vaccine were similar to each other and only slightly lower than those flocks vaccinated with monovalent IBD oil emulsion vaccine in earlier experiments. Six weeks after vaccination, sufficient immunity was transferred to protect all the progeny against IBD challenge up to 33 days of age and some of them up to 45 days of age. Thirty-four weeks after vaccination of the parents with oil emulsion vaccine, the progeny were totally immune up to 27 days of age and some of them were immune until 37 days. Application of oil emulsion vaccines in bivalent or trivalent form did not impair the responses of the chickens to the monovalent components.
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