Blood samples were collected from 84 buffalo cows 21 days after fixed time artificial insemination following oestrus synchronisation and cloprostenol. Progesterone concentration in plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay. The animals were examined for pregnancy by rectal palpation 60 to 90 days after insemination. Forty-two animals were predicted pregnant on the basis of progesterone concentration (more than 1.0 ng per ml), and 28 (66.7 per cent) of them were subsequently confirmed pregnant by rectal palpation. Thirty-five animals were predicted non-pregnant (progesterone less than 0.7 ng per ml), in 34 (97.1 per cent) this proved to be so. Of the total number, seven (8.3 per cent) were classified as doubtful because their progesterone concentrations were within the range 0.7 to 1.0 ng per ml: two of them were confirmed pregnant and the other five non-pregnant. Out of 31 animals diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation, 28 (90.3 per cent) had been correctly detected by assay at 21 days. Thirty-four (64.2 per cent) of the 53 animals found non-pregnant had been correctly detected by assay. It was concluded that the determination of plasma progesterone concentration 21 days after insemination was an accurate method of predicting non-pregnancy in buffaloes.
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