Specimens from cattle and sheep suspected of having cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN) were studied. Rumenal contents were examined for thiaminase-producing bacteria. Thiaminase activity was assessed in rumenal contents. The thiamine concentration of liver, brain and heart was determined and erythrocyte transketolase assessed. Diagnosis in each case, whether positive or negative for CCN, was decided by histopathological examination. There was a substantial agreement between the biochemical findings and the histological diagnosis indicating that a provisional diagnosis may be made on clinical and biochemical data alone. The findings are discussed in relation to other diseases which have the same neuropathological features. Attempts to isolate thiaminase-producing bacteria, which may be implicated in the aetiology of CCN, were inconclusive.
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